Pressure on suppliers

對供應商的施壓

Supermarkets have worked with suppliers to bypass the wholesale produce markets and establish direct ongoing purchasing relationships with a smaller number of producers.
大型量販業與其供應商聯手,建立其生產批發市場並與少數生產供應業者建立直接通路關係

Sourcing in this way has given supermarkets significantly more control over the quality, volume, varieties, delivery schedule and most importantly the price they demand from suppliers.
這樣的產銷通路關係給上游量販業者更多的空間可以掌控其產品的質與量,種類,運送時間,更重要的是價格

Supermarkets are now purchasing more produce from fewer suppliers, which has led to consolidation amongst producers, and the emergence of large corporate and mega family farms.
現在的大型量販業者只與少數合作的生產業者合作,這造成生產業者之間併購,只有少數的大型量販以及家族企業獨佔市場的局面

Coles and Woolworths have supported the growth of these chosen suppliers in a variety of ways, including signing long-term supply agreements, directly investing in farms, and even providing grants and interest free loans to suppliers.
Coles以及Woolworths兩家澳洲的量販巨擘以各種不同的方式,來支持他旗下的供應商,包括單一長期的供應合約,直接投資農場,甚至提供借貸資金以及補助款的方式來金援其上游供應商

In most fresh food produce categories, 8 producers now supply more than 70% of the market.

在全部的生鮮蔬果供應產商的清單中,有八家供應商占高達70%的市場佔有率

Having grown on the backs of supermarket supply contracts, these mega suppliers are now heavily reliant on Coles and Woolworths to ensure their business remains viable.
在Coles 與Wooolworth獨占市場的情況下,這些大型的生產業者為了合約的履行,無法與量販業者切割,為了合約他們相當依賴這條供應線

Faced with constant demands from the Supermarkets for price reductions, rebates and “voluntary” marketing payments, suppliers have little choice but to comply, even if these put practices put even more pressure on their bottom line.
面對量販超市不間斷的要求降價,回扣以及行銷費用,業主完全沒有申訴的空間即使他們在極大的壓力下

In this supermarket-fuelled "race to the bottom" on price, suppliers have competitive incentives to squeeze costs and cut corners, and shift risk to those at the bottom of the supply chain – farm workers.
這種量販業者弄出的削價競爭遊戲,所有生產業者必須要節省成本開銷,把這些成本轉嫁到工人的薪資上